Archaeological discoveries give proof that the town has been in existence for over 1200 years.
The town was first mentioned in the Codex of Lorsch (in 777)- according to these documents, Viernheim belonged to the monastery of Lorsch. In 1308, Viernheim became property of the archbishopric of Mainz.
Viernheim was seized multiple times to equal out debts.
After Thirty Years War, Viernheim stayed with Mainz and became a part of Hessen in 1803. With the creation of the district magistrate of Heppenheim in 1821, Viernheim belonged to the administration of Lorsch.
Later, after belonging to the administration of Bensheim for a short time (1832 - 1839) , Viernheim came back to the district magistrate of Heppenheim.
Since 1848, Viernheim belonged to the region "Kreis Heppenheim", which, since 1938, has been known as "Kreis Bergstraße".
Viernheim continuously suffered from ongoing strife concerning its ownership as well as submissive changes of religion, which occurred seven different times due to the "Religion Peace Contract of Augsburg" in 1555. According to this contract, all citizens had to take the religion of their regional rulers.
Viernheim was not spared from war conflicts concerning claims of power.
In 1852 many people emigrated to north America to escape hunger and starvation caused by many miserable harvests. They were financially supported by the community.
At the end of the 19th century the citizens of Viernheim found employment in the surrounding manufacturing districts like Mannheim and Weinheim. The farmer-village concept changed and was transformed by industrialisation.
A number of families also maintained a side income through their own farm work.
After the World War II, Viernheim experienced an economic boom and a strong rise in population.
The development of a favourable traffic infrastructure and an ideal location promoted Viernheim's change into a middle size industrial town.